acute effects of toluene

Toluene products are abused via inhalation for their intoxicating effects. Acute exposure to toluene at a concentration of 200 ppm for 8 h produced headache, nausea, muscular weakness, confusion, impaired coordination, and dilated pupils, as well as after-effects including fatigue, general confusion, and moderate insomnia in one, two, or all of the subjects. Acute and chronic exposure to this substance have yielded a range of side effects observed in both humans and animals. Greater than 75 percent is eliminated within 12 hours after exposure. 1987. 58 Citations. https://doi.org/10.1093/toxsci/kfm080, Beckstead MJ, Weiner JL, Eger EI et al (2000) Glycine and gamma-aminobutyric acid(A) receptor function is enhanced by inhaled drugs of abuse. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 63:1–12. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00420-003-0452-7, Sidhu SK, Bentley DJ, Carroll TJ (2008) Locomotor exercise induces long-lasting impairments in the capacity of the human motor cortex to voluntarily activate knee extensor muscles. A) USES: Toluene (toluol, methyl benzene) is an aromatic petroleum hydrocarbon that has many commercial and industrial applications. https://doi.org/10.1007/s002210000543, Di Lazzaro V, Oliviero A, Pilato F et al (2005a) Neurophysiological predictors of long term response to AChE inhibitors in AD patients. Researchers do no… Furthermore, its acute neurophysiological effects remain poorly understood in humans. Following acute exposure in humans, adverse effects included headaches, fatigue, eye irritation, increased tendency to sleep, and memory impairment (Echeverria et al., 1991). You may experience some hearing and color vision loss after long-term daily exposure to toluene in the workplace. Ergonomics 26:1081–1087. Since toluene reaches relatively high concentrations in the CNS and is extremely lipophilic, we investigated its effects on rat brain membrane composition and function. J Physiol 590:2767–2782, Hanajima R, Ugawa Y, Terao Y et al (1998) Paired-pulse magnetic stimulation of the human motor cortex: differences among I waves. J Physiol 590:4641–4662. Echeverria, Diana. Health Effects Absorption/Metabolism Toluene is absorbed almost completely from the gastrointestinal tract following ingestion. More importantly, the data also demonstrate that the acute effects of 24-h exposure to toluene cannot be accurately predicted from the effects of a 1-h exposure by use of either dose metric. J Physiol 523(Pt 2):503–513, Urban P, Lukás E (1990) Visual evoked potentials in rotogravure printers exposed to toluene. Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout. Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. to extreme acute toxicity from inhalation exposure and low acute toxicity from oral exposure. Neurotoxicol Teratol 32:313–328. Chronic oral exposure to toluene has not been characterised in humans. These symptoms usually disappear when exposure is stopped. Google Scholar, Bushnell PJ, Kavlock RJ, Crofton KM et al (2010) Behavioral toxicology in the 21st century: challenges and opportunities for behavioral scientists. Acute and chronic exposure to this substance have yielded a range of side effects observed in both humans and animals. h�b```"kV� ��ea��`Pb(8�f��px��SՒ�,�{�� Exp Brain Res 119:265–268. Below is the link to the electronic supplementary material. J Physiol 527:633–639. Neurotoxicology 48:50–59. Authors; Authors and affiliations; Tatsuya Hobara; Haruo Kobayashi ; Eiji Higashihara; Toshihiro Kawamoto; Tsunemi Sakai; Article. In high doses, toluene has effects similar to other volatile substances such as psychomotor damage, excitation in locomotor activities and later inhibition, loss of the standing up reflex, and sedation [ 7 – 9 In people and animals exposed to toluene, the first effect of toluene would be the depression of the central nervous system. Toluene is typically used in a mixture with other solvents and chemicals such as paint pigments. h�bbd``b`z$�A�^ ��Ī���� �$�ĺb9�X ��]"� � @�!H�mPS\cd��e`�&���� �? PubMed Central  A smaller mesh … https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.bjp.0705481, Dai W, Pi YL, Ni Z et al (2016) Maintenance of balance between motor cortical excitation and inhibition after long-term training. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ntt.2010.02.002, Chen R (2000) Studies of human motor physiology with transcranial magnetic stimulation. Each block consisted of seven interleaved 5-minutes resting and cycling blocks. Both heart and breathing rates increased during cycling. CAS  None of the remaining authors has potential conflicts of interest to be disclosed. Toxicol Sci 98:159–166. Science 290:533–536. Toxicology 265:34–40. Neurotoxicol Teratol 33:521–529. Conclusions: Three hour exposure to 50 ppm toluene did not result in abnormal episodic LH or FSH secretion profiles, however, subtle effects on LH secretion in men and women in the luteal phase were found. the actual consumer exposure, when toluene is used as a solvent in nail products the exposure was 1.89 ppm and 2.66 ppm respectively. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroscience.2004.08.040, Bale AS, Jackson MD, Krantz QT et al (2007) Evaluating the NMDA-glutamate receptor as a site of action for toluene, in vivo. Neurology 57:1899–1901. Clin Neurophysiol 115:1717–1729, Ziemann U, Lönnecker S, Steinhoff BJ, Paulus W (1996) Effects of antiepileptic drugs on motor cortex excitability in humans: a transcranial magnetic stimulation study. Behavioral toxicity of toluene has been assessed in mice. Correspondence to S u m m a r y o f s u b c h r o n i c a n d c h r o n i c t o l u e n e i n h a l a t i o n s t u d i e s i n a n i m a l s ....80 Table B1-1. PubMed  The acute behavioural effects of inhaling toluene after a single exposure are reversible,1 but although revers ible, they may also be an early sign of central nervous system (CNS) impairment leading to irreversible losses in performance with repeated exposures.2 3 Acute decrements may be large enough to decrease the safety margin of industrial tasks or to lower productivity. Neuroscience 17:37–53. Clin Neurophysiol 114:600–604. Samples of chamber air for analysis were taken through another port. Higher concentrations produced effects similar to the 200-ppm exposure; however, the effects were more pronounced and … Int Arch Occup Environ Health 77:1–9. Blocks 2, 4, and 6 are related to cycling, and blocks 1, 3, 5, and 7 are rest periods. It was concluded that there is good evidence that toluene has no acute effects on colour discrimination for exposures in the region of 300-350 ppm for 30 minutes and 50-150 ppm 8h TWA. Toluene toxicity refers to the harmful effects caused by toluene on the body. Exp Brain Res 135:455–461. Overall, no clear pattern of … Answered by Dr. Ed Kaplan: Leukemia: Risk is leukemia and other bone marrow diseases. Min-Fang Kuo. Many workers are regularly exposed to toluene in their working environment and occupational exposure limits (OELs) have been set to avoid adverse health effects. Br J Pharmacol 137:375–383. Act Nerv Super (Praha) 23:177–179, ICIS (2007) Toluene uses and market data, 2007. https://www.icis.com/resources/news/2007/11/07/9076550/toluene-uses-and-market-data/, Ilić TV, Meintzschel F, Cleff U et al (2002) Short-interval paired-pulse inhibition and facilitation of human motor cortex: the dimension of stimulus intensity. Google Scholar, Bale AS, Tu Y, Carpenter-Hyland EP et al (2005) Alterations in glutamatergic and gabaergic ion channel activity in hippocampal neurons following exposure to the abused inhalant toluene. Concentrations corresponded to the German TLV (TRGS 403). Acute toluene toxicity results in lightheadedness and euphoria. Exposure to this chemical and loud noise may cause greater hearing loss than expected from noise exposure alone. Request PDF | Acute high-level toluene exposure decreases hippocampal neurogenesis in rats | Toluene is an organic solvent that is used in various industrial applications. Ask doctors free . If swallowed, toluene can greatly impair the function of the kidney and liver. Toluene is a clear, colorless liquid which becomes a vapor when exposed to air at room temperature. This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access. With higher levels of exposure, unconsciousness, coma, and death may occur. Adverse performance at 150 ppm toluene was found at 6.0% for digit span, 12.1% for pattern recognition (latency), 5.0% for pattern memory (number correct), 6.5% for one hole, and 3.0% for critical tracking. Google Scholar, Bowen SE, Wiley JL, Jones HE, Balster RL (1999) Phencyclidine- and diazepam-like discriminative stimulus effects of inhalants in mice. Ann Neurol 40:367–378. PubMed Central  J Physiol 569:315–323. Effects on colour vision have been reported, but the evidence is inconclusive. Arch Toxicol 92, 3149–3162 (2018). Exp Brain Res 232:1875–1882, Stagg CJ, Nitsche MA (2011) Physiological basis of transcranial direct current stimulation. A significant interaction was observed between toluene and block for HR, which could be caused by increased arousal of the toluene-naïve participants in the first block. https://doi.org/10.1016/0010-0285(87)90002-8, Nitsche MA, Paulus W (2000) Excitability changes induced in the human motor cortex by weak transcranial direct current stimulation. %%EOF https://doi.org/10.1113/jphysiol.1997.sp021905, Nissen MJ, Bullemer P (1987) Attentional requirements of learning: evidence from performance measures. Some workers have developed reversible disorders of the optic nerves after chronic exposure in the workplace. J Neural Transm 104:1207–1214. https://doi.org/10.1002/1097-4598(2000)999:9%3C::AID-MUS6%3E3.0.CO;2-I, Cirillo J, Lavender AP, Ridding MC, Semmler JG (2009) Motor cortex plasticity induced by paired associative stimulation is enhanced in physically active individuals. Google Scholar, Tokimura H, Di Lazzaro V, Tokimura Y et al (2000a) Short latency inhibition of human hand motor cortex by somatosensory input from the hand. 61 0 obj <>/Filter/FlateDecode/ID[<82E70B1567FC274B871C8704B30252CA><82E70B1567FC274B871C8704B30252CA>]/Index[40 40]/Info 39 0 R/Length 94/Prev 120988/Root 41 0 R/Size 80/Type/XRef/W[1 2 1]>>stream Exposure to higher concentrations leads to clouding or loss of consciousness. Toluene is one of the most widely abused inhaled drugs due to its acute neurologic effects including euphoria and subsequent depression. Un programme mené au Laboratoire de recherche sur la santé et les effets environnementaux de l'epa, l'Agence américaine pour la protection de l'environnement, a étudié les risques associés à une exposition occasionnelle aux vapeurs de solvants. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejphar.2005.10.069, Girard O, Bishop DJ, Racinais S (2013) Neuromuscular adjustments of the quadriceps muscle after repeated cycling sprints. In order to assay the effects of inhaled toluene on hippocampal neurogenesis, we measured the levels of neurogenesis markers Ki-67 and doublecortin (DCX) in the hippocampus 1, 2, 5, … J Physiol 587:5831–5842, Cruz SL, Mirshahi T, Thomas B et al (1998) Effects of the abused solvent toluene on recombinant N-methyl-d-aspartate and non-N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors expressed in Xenopus oocytes. It is used as a solvent and starting material for organic synthesis and is found in paints, paint thinners, glues, and other products. Toluene products are abused via inhalation for their intoxicating effects. moderate . J Physiol 471:501–519. Arito H, Tsuruta H, Nakagaki K. Toxicology, (3-4):291-301 MED: 6083632 Workers repeatedly exposed at 200 to 500 ppm have reported loss of coordination, memory loss, and loss of appetite. Pre-chronic and Chronic Studies .....15 4.1.2.3. Google Scholar, Klass M et al (2012) Effects of noradrenaline and dopamine on supraspinal fatigue in well-trained men. May harm the nervous system. Toluene is a well-known neurotoxic organic solvent and a major component of many industrial and commercial products such as adhesives, paint thinners and gasoline. Here we report the effects of a toluene-ace-tone mixture. Methods: In a parallel design, subgroups of 12 healthy men each were exposed to a mixture containing 25 ppm acetone and 250 ppm toluene or to air (control) in an exposure chamber for 4.5 hours. https://doi.org/10.5271/sjweh.2221, Article  J Physiol 511(Pt 1):181–190. Environl Toxicol Pharmacol 19:607–614, Article  © 2020 Springer Nature Switzerland AG. Br J Ind Med 50:520–527, PubMed  Google Scholar, Gauthereau MY, Salinas-Stefanon EM, Cruz SL (2005) A mutation in the local anaesthetic binding site abolishes toluene effects in sodium channels. Clin Neurophysiol 111:794–799. Eur J Med Res 10:381–388, Nakamura H, Kitagawa H, Kawaguchi Y, Tsuji H (1997) Intracortical facilitation and inhibition after transcranial magnetic stimulation in conscious humans. Following acute dermal exposure to toluene, local effects may include irritation, blistering, dryness and erythema. Ce programme a inclus des expériences caractérisant les effets comportementaux et neurophysiologiques de l'inhalation des vapeurs, le développement de modèles numériq… Toluene vapor has a sharp or sweet odor, which is a sign of exposure. A 46-year-old member asked: what are the toluene carcinogenic effects on the health of a person? It is also absorbed via inhalation, and to a lesser degree, through the skin. In this study, the effects of toluene on locomotor activity, motor coordination, and passive avoidance learning, along with the possible mechanism underlying these toluene-induced behavioral manifestations, were investigated. These results suggest that toluene might act by modulating NMDA receptor activity, as well as cortical glutamatergic and cholinergic neurotransmission in the human brain. Selected subset of occupational studies of neurological effects from toluene inhalation .....74 T a b l e 2 . These studies indicate that toluene produces a number of subjective sensations such as headache, dizziness, feeling of intoxication, irritation and sleepiness and decreases in acute neurobehavioural performance at concentrations = 75 ppm (EU RAR, 2003). Data are shown as Mean ± SEM. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 286:334–340, Cruz SL, Orta-Salazar G, Gauthereau MY et al (2003) Inhibition of cardiac sodium currents by toluene exposure. volume 92, pages3149–3162(2018)Cite this article. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of acute exposure to toluene on cortical excitability, plasticity, and implicit motor learning in healthy volunteers. The toxic effects of toluene di-isocyanate are attributed to two different toxic actions: a) A primary ... Apart from the direct irritant effects, an acute allergic -like reaction may occur after a delay of several hours (oculorhinitis, asthmatic syndrome) and also after exposure to low concentrations, even when there have been no initial symptoms. edge of their acute effects on human central nervous system. Summary of a symposium presented at the annual meeting of the Neurobehavioral Teratology Society, June, 2009. Chronic exposure due to solvent abuse can result in permanent neuropsychiatric effects. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01294721, Lim SK, Shin HS, Yoon KS et al (2014) Risk assessment of volatile organic compounds benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene (BTEX) in consumer products. Disorders of the muscles, cardiovascular effects, renal tubular damage, and su… endstream endobj startxref Methods: In a parallel design, subgroups of 12 healthy men each were exposed to a mixture containing 25 ppm acetone and 250 ppm toluene or to air (control) in an exposure chamber for 4.5 hours. Subtle acute effects, however, were found just below and above the ACGIH TLV of 100 ppm toluene, supporting the position that the guideline be lowered since the biological threshold of behavioural effects may be comparable with the TLV. Pharmacol Toxicol 85:37–43. However, it is well documented study and it was the lowest reported acute effect concentration identified in the EU RAR for toluene (2003) and so is considered suitable for use as a key study. PubMed  Of course the longer it takes for toluene to be eliminated the more harm it is likely to do. Top answers from doctors based on your search: Disclaimer. Muscle Nerve Suppl 9:S26–S32. Neuroscience 336:114–122. Purpose: Recent research on the acute effects of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) suggests that extrapolation from short (~ 1 h) to long durations (up to 4 h) is improved by using estimates of brain toluene concentration ( Br[ToI)] instead of cumulative inhaled dose (C x t) as a metric of dose. 0 https://doi.org/10.1212/WNL.57.10.1899, Nitsche MA, Nitsche MS, Klein CC et al (2003) Level of action of cathodal DC polarisation induced inhibition of the human motor cortex. In one case, a person who had ingested toluene died following “a severe depression of the [central nervous system],” and showed signs of tubular kidney necrosis and swollen liver. �������R�lHYĬ$���n�(���=���ȦUD�����(S%�B�����'�e��:�w�#\�fN��vp>j��$�u�}� t#B�S}�ֱ��=c�C����2�e�x(2��A�ջE��!�[#3 �1�r0^H(A-.�C�,]��J�,�Î���v�� q��13L|s�{��^^!! https://doi.org/10.1113/jphysiol.1993.sp019912, Liepert J, Schwenkreis P, Tegenthoff M, Malin JP (1997) The glutamate antagonist Riluzole suppresses intracortical facilitation. mPFC activity decreased during rewarded trials, with larger decreases following risky/large wins compared with safe/small wins. Work Environ Health 9:131–139, CAS  This implies that the acute effects of toluene may be overcome, at least partially, for situations where consequences for poor performance exist. CAS  https://doi.org/10.1002/ana.410400306, Ziemann U, Chen R, Cohen LG, Hallett M (1998a) Dextromethorphan decreases the excitability of the human motor cortex. Front Psychol. Acute and Case Studies .....12 4.1.2.2. Exp Clin Psychopharmacol 7:28–37. A) USES: Toluene (toluol, methyl benzene) is an aromatic petroleum hydrocarbon that has many commercial and industrial applications. Neurology 51:1320–1324. Brain Stimul 1:206–223. ���e�y/�>q����f8M,C.U�� Toluene is a widely used organic solvent that can produce acute central nervous system (CNS) effects. The animals exposed to toluene showed significantly decreased hippocampal neurogenesis, which persisted until the 8th and final day of measurement. Department of Psychology and Neurosciences, Leibniz Research Centre for Working Environment and Human Factors, 44139, Dortmund, Germany, Fatemeh Yavari, Michael A. Nitsche & Min-Fang Kuo, Department of Toxicology, Networking Group: Neurotoxicology and Chemosensation, Leibniz Research Centre for Working Environment and Human Factors, 44139, Dortmund, Germany, University Medical Hospital Bergmannsheil, 44789, Bochum, Germany, You can also search for this author in Dr. Ed Kaplan answered. https://doi.org/10.1080/15287394.2014.955905, Lo PS, Wu CY, Sue HZ, Chen HH (2009) Acute neurobehavioral effects of toluene: involvement of dopamine and NMDA receptors. This research was funded by Leibniz Research Centre for Working Environment and Human Factors, Dortmund, Germany. The effects of toluene on children have not been studied very much, but toluene is likely to produce the same types of effects on the brain and nervous system in children as it does in adults. Elsevier, Amsterdam, Muttray A, Martus P, Schachtrup S et al (2005) Acute effects of an organic solvent mixture on the human central nervous system. In humans a number of subjective sensations such as headache, dizziness, feeling of intoxication, irritation and sleepiness and decreases in acute neurobehavioural performance are seen following acute exposure = 75 ppm. Treatment with GABA agonists such as benzodiazepines provide some relief from toluene-induced tremor and ataxia. Inappropriate behavior, mood fluctuations, and nystagmus are also common. Acute effects of toluene on circadian rhythms of sleep-wakefulness and brain monoamine metabolism in rats. PubMed Central  pñ��N�GpK8W Br J Ind Med 47:819–823, PubMed  Acta Medica Croat 51:215–219, Yamaguchi T, Fujiwara T, Liu W, Liu M (2012) Effects of pedaling exercise on the intracortical inhibition of cortical leg area. Neurotoxicology 30(6):1223–1232, Horváth M, Frantík E, Krekule P (1981) Diazepam impairs alertness and potentiates the similar effect of toluene. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1388-2457(02)00412-1, Nitsche MA, Cohen LG, Wassermann EM et al (2008) Transcranial direct current stimulation: state of the art 2008. In addition, in this study, we focused on the acute effect of toluene exposure on persistent expression of mRNA level rather than transient changes. Yavari, F., van Thriel, C., Nitsche, M.A. Incoordination, disequilibrium, confusion, and cognitive and memory deficits accompany these symptoms. Am J Ind Med 16:67–77. Toluene is a clear, colorless liquid which becomes a vapor when exposed to air at room temperature. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7793.1998.181bi.x. Toluene is not stored in the body. The lethal dose for man cannot be stated with certainty. The acute effects of toluene inhalation exposure have been investigated in a number of human experimental studies in volunteers. Robert B. Dick 1, James V. Setzer 1, Robert Wait 1, Mary Beth Hayden 1, Bobby J. Taylor 1, Bill Tolos 1 & Vern Putz-Anderson 1 International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health volume 54, pages 91 – 109 (1984)Cite this article. Low to moderate, day-after-day exposure to toluene in your workplace can cause tiredness, confusion, weakness, drunken-type actions, memory loss, nausea, and loss of appetite. 1987. Subtle acute effects, however, were found just below and above the ACGIH TLV of 100 ppm toluene, supporting the position that the guideline be lowered since the biological threshold of behavioural effects may be comparable with the TLV. ��k��D���ܬ����4l��C��&���q��n����n�n~z��k���2�k�&��`���I�nt9�aBs� ��������2�2�H�:���ص8�{m������v�ۍ=:��+��]G8j*ʛH8 X��%�� 1 Breathing and heart rates were recorded during two 35 minutes blocks in each session. et al. https://doi.org/10.1097/00004691-200208000-00005, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroscience.2004.08.040, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ntt.2010.02.002, https://doi.org/10.1002/1097-4598(2000)999:9%3C::AID-MUS6%3E3.0.CO;2-I, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroscience.2016.08.053, https://doi.org/10.1113/jphysiol.2003.059808, https://doi.org/10.1016/S1388-2457(99)00314-4, https://doi.org/10.1113/jphysiol.2005.092155, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.clinph.2007.07.005, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejphar.2005.10.069, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7793.1998.607bn.x, https://doi.org/10.1080/00140138308963441, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ntt.2011.07.008, https://www.icis.com/resources/news/2007/11/07/9076550/toluene-uses-and-market-data/, https://doi.org/10.1113/jphysiol.2002.030122, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuro.2015.03.005, https://doi.org/10.1113/jphysiol.1993.sp019912, https://doi.org/10.1080/15287394.2014.955905, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tox.2009.09.005, https://doi.org/10.1113/jphysiol.1997.sp021905, https://doi.org/10.1016/0010-0285(87)90002-8, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7793.2000.t01-1-00633.x, https://doi.org/10.1016/S1388-2457(02)00412-1, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brs.2008.06.004, https://doi.org/10.1113/jphysiol.2012.232975, https://doi.org/10.1113/jphysiol.2008.153288, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2010.11.001, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0773.1999.tb01061.x, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.290.5491.533, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00420-003-0452-7, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neubiorev.2008.01.006, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7793.1998.181bi.x, Supplemental Fig. This study encourages further research to obtain more knowledge about mechanisms of action and effects of toluene on both naïve and chronically exposed populations. ���K=�~|�x�y{v��������O�Nj��ߟo��v��]~�������w��B�qq�~�RQta*�v�/~X�e�v�Ra���K`>�J 5>��I(XN�Xː�+�V��z�|� ��ƣ�Gws e�-��;CTe��rk��: ��v�}���� 1�A��p 9 �u��P 0.2.1.1 ACUTE EXPOSURE. For the same scenarios the MOS for reproductive toxicity Glowa JR, DeWeese J, Natale ME, Holland JJ, Dews PB. Mol Pharmacol 57:1199–1205, PubMed  Central nervous effects of low-dose exposure to neurotoxic substances in the work environment. toluene also causes irritation of the upper respiratory tract and eyes, sore throat, dizziness, and headache. Psychophysiological functions. Motor Control 14:344–361, Vrca A, Bozicevic D, Bozikov V et al (1997) Brain stem evoked potentials and visual evoked potentials in relation to the length of occupational exposure to low levels of toluene. 40 0 obj <> endobj Following acute ingestion of toluene, systemic effects as seen following inhalation may occur as well as oropharyngeal and gastric irritation with abdominal pain and vomiting. https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.bjp.0704874, Article  Furthermore, we evaluated long-term potentiation-like neuroplasticity induced by anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over the motor cortex, and the participants conducted a motor sequence learning task, the serial reaction time task. If swallowed, toluene can greatly impair the function of the kidney and liver. Drug Alcohol Depend 115:101–106. Chronic toluene exposures at less than 200 ppm have been associated with headache, fatigue, and nausea. Learn more about Institutional subscriptions, Abbruzzese G, Trompetto C (2002) Clinical and research methods for evaluating cortical excitability. The acute systemic effects of inhaled toluene vapour result in central nervous disorders such as headaches, dizziness, nausea, unsteady gait and coordination disorders. injection of toluene on circadian rhythms of sleep-wakefulness were investigated in rats which were chronically implanted with EEG and EMG electrodes for polygraphic recordings. The lethal dose for man cannot be stated with certainty. The acute systemic effects of inhaled toluene vapour result in central nervous disorders such as headaches, dizziness, nausea, unsteady gait and coordination disorders. J Physiol 557:689–700. Metrics … Full text Full text is available as a scanned copy of the original print version. Google Scholar, Urry K, Burns NR, Baetu I (2015) Accuracy-based measures provide a better measure of sequence learning than reaction time-based measures. https://doi.org/10.1037/1064-1297.7.1.28, Bushnell PJ, Shafer TJ, Bale AS et al (2005) Developing an exposure-dose-response model for the acute neurotoxicity of organic solvents: overview and progress on in vitro models and dosimetry. 6 Altmetric. Med Sci Sports Exerc 44:2299–2308, Kobald SO, Wascher E, Blaszkewicz M et al (2015) Neurobehavioral and neurophysiological effects after acute exposure to a single peak of 200 ppm toluene in healthy volunteers. Google Scholar, van Tilborg, Hulstijn W (2010) Implicit motor learning in patients with Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s disease: differences in learning abilities? Two factors complicate extrapolation across these time intervals. The toluene injection produced an initial increase in wakefulness (W) and a subsequent increase in slow-wave sleep (SWS) during the dark period. Toluene, a widely used and commonly abused organic solvent, causes a variety of behavioral disturbances in both humans and animals. Seventeen subjects were assessed with different transcranial magnetic stimulation measurements: motor thresholds, short-latency … On the behavioural level, toluene did not alter performance of the motor learning task. https://doi.org/10.1136/jnnp.2004.051334, Di Lazzaro V, Pilato F, Dileone M et al (2005b) Dissociated effects of diazepam and lorazepam on short-latency afferent inhibition. 0.2.1.1 ACUTE EXPOSURE. Human studies have reported developmental effects, such as CNS dysfunction, attention deficits, and minor craniofacial and limb anomalies, in the children of pregnant women exposed to high levels of toluene or mixed solvents by inhalation. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2015.01158, PubMed  PubMed  Mature cross-bred dogs were acutely exposed to 1,1,1-trichloroethane, trichloroethylene, and toluene. M. A. Nitsche is a member of Advisory Board of Neuroelectrics. %PDF-1.6 %���� Full text Full text is available as a scanned copy of the original print version. Acute Effects: Acute exposure to high levels of 2,4-toluene diisocyanate in humans, via inhalation, results in severe irritation of the skin, eyes, and nose, and causes nausea and vomiting. 123 Accesses. This hypothesis requires explicit testing. Echeverria, Diana. Exp Transl Stroke Med 3(1):4, Article  CAS  Incoordination, disequilibrium, confusion, and cognitive and memory deficits accompany these symptoms. Acute Neurobehavioral Effects Of Toluene And Ethanol In Humans. The effects of toluene on this task confirm most aspects of our earlier observations that toluene disrupts both visual (Oshiro et al., 2007) and auditory signal detection in rats (Bushnell et al., 1994); they also extend observations of similar effects with TCE (Bushnell, 1997; Bushnell and Oshiro, 2000; Oshiro et al., 2001). Acute Neurobehavioral Effects Of Toluene And Ethanol In Humans. Aviat Space Environ Med 67:640–647, Riegel aC, French ED (1999) An electrophysiological analysis of rat ventral tegmental dopamine neuronal activity during acute toluene exposure. PubMed  Neurosci Biobehav Rev 32:910–926. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuro.2015.03.005, Kujirai T, Caramia MD, Rothwell JC et al (1993) Corticocortical inhibition in human motor cortex. The toluene injection produced an initial increase in wakefulness (W) and a subsequent increase in slow-wave sleep (SWS) during the dark period. J Toxicol Environ Health Part A 77:1502–1521. Subtle acute effects, however, were found just below and above the ACGIH TLV of 100 ppm toluene, supporting the position that the guideline be lowered since the biological threshold ofbehavioural effects may be comparable with the TLV.

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