college of cardinals history

[18], The total size of the College lost its significance when Paul decided to allow only cardinals under the age of 80 to vote in a conclave from 1971 onward. A Homily for the First Sunday of Advent, See What the End Shall Be – A Homily for the 4th Sunday of Advent. Since 1962 all cardinals have been required to receive episcopal consecration unless they are granted an exemption from this obligation by the Pope. Cardinals are appointed by the pope for life. These cardinal deacons would also assist the Pope liturgically whenever he was in that region of the diocese. [44], For the Middle Ages, sources concerning the size of the College of Cardinals are most frequently those relating to papal elections and conclaves. [45] The group's size has historically been limited by popes, ecumenical councils, and even the College itself. The total size of the College has continually increased since 1971, reaching 229 in November 2020, of which almost half (101) were over the age limit of 80. Northern cardinals occasionally go bald, losing all the feathers on their heads and showing bare black or dark gray skin instead. Stephen decreed that all cardinal-bishops were bound to sing Mass on rotation at the high altar at St. Peter's Basilica, one per Sunday. The Roman Diocese was divided into seven regions and a deacon was assigned to each. II, Sec. TheCollege of Cardinals is the collection of cardinals within the Roman Catholic Church. As for the functions of the College of Cardinals, we have already seen much of this in the history above. }. Cardinal priests attended not only to their own ministry or parish but also convened regularly to oversee matters of Church discipline in the diocese of Rome. [1] As of 28 November 2020,[update] its current membership is 229. Most recently this happened with Cardinal Avery Dulles who was elevated to Cardinal but remained a priest. pp. Upon Paul’s death in 1978, 111 cardinals were eligible to serve as electors at the papal conclave. The College is responsible for selecting the next pope whenever the incumbent dies or decides to resign. function() { Please reload the CAPTCHA. The most effective way for a pope to increase his power was to increase the number of cardinals, promoting those who had nominated him. ~ ThriftBooks: Read More, Spend Less ", XXIII, 445 sqq.). 241–242. 2002. In 1130, under Urban II, all the classes were permitted to take part in papal elections; up to this point, only cardinal-bishops had this role. Under the new rule there were 102, 27 of them Italian. Rights of cardinals Paul IV brought the total to seventy. The Pope met regularly with them in something called the “consistory,” i.e. Until 2013, the papal conclave had never chosen a pope from outside Europe. The College of Cardinals, formerly styled the Sacred College of Cardinals, is the body of all cardinals of the Catholic Church. Until then, the Holy See was often bitterly fought for among Rome's aristocratic families and external secular authorities had significant influence over who was to be appointed pope, and the Holy Roman Emperor in particular had the special power to appoint him. The cardinal deacons are either officials of the Roman Curia or priests elevated after their eightieth birthday (such as Cardinal Dulles was). [6], Popes respected that limit until Pope John XXIII increased the number of cardinals several times to 88 in January 1961[17] and Pope Paul VI continued this expansion, reaching 134 at his third consistory in April 1969. John XXIII codified this and other rules for the College in, Paul VI codified this and other rules for the College in. Being in Church is Essential, Governor. The Catholic Hierarchy . The office of cardinal as it is known today slowly evolved during the first millennium from the clergy of Rome. Of the 117 cardinals under the age of 80 at the time of Pope Benedict XVI's resignation, 115 participated in the conclave of March 2013 that elected his successor. [35] He consecrated the twelve non-bishop members of the College himself. Cardinal priests are the largest of the three orders of cardinals. I, Chap. "Cardinal." One idea was to have the Congress choose the president. The conclave rules specify the procedures to be followed should they elect someone residing outside Vatican City or not yet a bishop.[52]. The Pope increasingly came to call on bishops of nearby dioceses (esp. No change was made regarding the Vice-Dean. var notice = document.getElementById("cptch_time_limit_notice_44"); By the end of the 14th century, the practice of having solely Italian cardinals had ceased. The college has no ruling power except during the sede vacante (papal vacancy) period, and even then its powers are extremely limited by the terms of the current law, which is laid down in the Apostolic constitution Universi Dominici gregis (1996) and the Fundamental Law of Vatican City State. "The first time that the term cardinal appears in the Liber Pontificalis is in the biography of Pope Stephen III (IV) when in the Roman Synod of 769, it was decided that the Roman pontiff should be elected from among the deacons and cardinal priests. The College of Cardinals also convenes on the death or abdication of a pope as a papal conclave to elect a successor. })(120000); Time limit is exhausted. [51] The cardinals have nevertheless consistently elected the Bishop of Rome from among their own membership since the death of Pope Urban VI (the last non-cardinal to become pope) in 1389. The June 28 consistory will bring the College of Cardinals’ membership to 226, 121 of them cardinal electors (or under age 80, and thus eligible to vote in a papal conclave). All of Paul's successors have at times exceeded the 120 maximum (except for Pope John Paul I, who did not hold any consistory during his very short reign). In a way it was like the modern notion of a local synod. Now that attention shifts on Saturday to the new Cardinals, (Including Archbishop Wilton Gregory of this Archdiocese), it might be good to spend a brief time reflecting on what a Cardinal is and how the College of Cardinals functions. display: none !important; ROME (AP) — Pope Francis is preparing to formally elevate 13 new cardinals, including the first African-American to receive the rank, in a ceremony marked in every way by the coronavirus pandemic: Two of the cardinals stayed home, the rest eschewed the usual celebrations and St. Peter’s Basilica was practically empty for Saturday’s service. The title of “Cardinal Bishop” only means that he holds the title of one of the “suburbicarian” (nearby dioceses of Rome listed above) or that he is the Dean of the College of Cardinals — or that he is a patriarch of an Eastern Catholic Church. By 1976 the College of Cardinals contained 138 cardinals, by far the largest and most international group to serve up to that time. From the beginning of the 12th century, the College of Cardinals started to meet as such, when the cardinal bishops, cardinal priests and cardinal deacons ceased acting as separate groups.[49]. In March 1994, the Cardinals were christened with a new name, the Arizona Cardinals. Each Cardinal is appointed by the pope and represents the upper echelon of the Catholic Church. His immediate successor, Pope Pius IV (1559–1565), raised the limit to seventy-six. [41][e] In June 2018, Pope Francis eased the rules governing the rank of cardinal bishop to open that rank to anyone of the pope's choosing, granting such cardinals the same privileges as those assigned suburbicarian sees. This idea was rejected, however, because some felt that making such a choice would be too divisive an issue and leave too many hard feelings in the Congress. Unfortunately, their choice, John Paul I died only six weeks later. Those who attain to this office have proven their worth as stable and wise counselors, good bishops of the Church. Jugie, Pierre. Perhaps it is good to start with a little history and then describe the present realities. The cardinals not only attend the meetings of the College but also make themselves available individually or with small panels of cardinals if the Pope requests their counsel in this way. Cardinal Bishops – Yet again, during all this time there also emerged the cardinal bishops. The total number of cardinals from 1099 to 1986 has been about 2,900 (excluding possible undocumented 12th-century cardinals and cardinals appointed during the Western Schism by pontiffs now considered to be antipopes, and subject to some other sources of uncertainty), nearly half of whom were created after 1655. [42], Pope Francis adjusted the rules regarding the Dean in December 2019 so they now serve for a term of 5 years which can be renewed by the Pope. But there is nothing new about the oldest team in terms of continuous operation in pro football history. Still others felt that such an arrangement would upset the balance of … [10] By the papacy of Sixtus V (1585–1590), the number was set at seventy on 3 December 1586, divided among fourteen cardinal-deacons, fifty cardinal-priests, and six cardinal-bishops. The Council of Basel (1431–1437, later transferred to Ferrara and then Florence) limited the size of the college to 24,[10] as did the capitulation of the papal conclave, 1464. The college acquired particular importance following the crowning of Henry IV as King of Germany and Holy Roman Emperor at the age of six, after the unexpected death of Henry III in 1056. Levillain, ed. TheCollege of Cardinalsis the collection of Cardinals within the Roman Catholic Church. Body of all cardinals of the Catholic Church, For the current membership of the College of Cardinals, see. The College of Cardinals (or Cardinalate) is the body of all cardinals of the Roman Catholic Church.. A function of the college is to advise the pope about church matters when he summons them to an ordinary consistory. Time limit is exhausted. Pope John Paul II's Universi Dominici gregis of 22 February 1996 modified that rule slightly, so that cardinals who have reached the age of 80 before the day the see becomes vacant are not eligible to vote. The College of Cardinals [From the Historical Notes in the "Annuario Pontificio 2013"] The Cardinals, who oversee the presbyterates of 25 titular and quasi parish churches of Rome, of which 7 are regional deaconries and 6 Palatine deaconries, and 7 (7th century: 6) Suburban Sees, are the advisers and collaborators of the Pope. ... • Most prominent personalities of 12 centruy and middle ages and church history in general He appointed 13 new members to the College of Cardinals. Name: Date of Birth: Type: Created by: Country: Continent: VANHOYE Card. Though all the Cardinals are now bishops, the traditional distinctions are maintained. Previously only the senior cardinal priest and the senior cardinal deacon had the privilege of requesting such an appointment (jus optionis) when a vacancy occurred. III, "Pope Names 33 Cardinals; Cooke Among 4 From U.S.", "Voting for Popes Is Barred to Cardinals Over 80", "Ottaviani Deplores Papal Action Barring Vote of Aged Cardinals", "Crítica de dos Cardenales contra el Papa Paulo VI", "Archbishop of Hanoi Among 20 New Cardinals Installed by Pope", "Shaping a Legacy, Pope Installs 44 Cardinals", "Pope Confirms Cardinals, As Talk Turns to Succession", "Why Francis Needs to Expand the College of Cardinals", "Pope names 22 new cardinals, including Dolan and O'Brien", "Pope Francis creates 13 new cardinals, emphasizes their 'compassion, "Pope makes changes within College of Cardinals", "Lettera Apostolica in forma di "Motu proprio" riguardante l'Ufficio del Decano del Collegio Cardinalizio", "Catholic cardinals, princes of the church, rarely quit", "Vatican Press Office: Cardinals, Statistics", "Cardinal Keith O'Brien resigns as Archbishop", Next Cardinal Creating Consistory by Pope Benedict XVI – The Required Background Data, De aliquis mutationibus in normis de electione Romani Pontificis, Divine Worship and the Discipline of the Sacraments, Consecrated Life and Societies of Apostolic Life, Office for the Liturgical Celebrations of the Supreme Pontiff, Fine Arts and Letters of the Virtuosi al Pantheon, Agency for the Evaluation and Promotion of Quality, Congregation for Indulgences and Sacred Relics, Secretariate of Briefs to Princes and of Latin Letters, Pontifical Commission for the Cultural Heritage of the Church, Pontifical Council for Social Communications, Pastoral Care of Migrants and Itinerant People, Pastoral Assistance to Health Care Workers, Archbishop and Metropolitan of the Roman Province, Permanent Observer to the Council of Europe, Palace of the Congregation for the Evangelization of Peoples, Palace of the Congregation for the Oriental Churches, Pontificio Collegio Urbano de Propaganda Fide, International Alliance of Catholic Knights, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=College_of_Cardinals&oldid=995487400, Wikipedia articles needing page number citations from December 2015, Wikipedia articles needing page number citations from July 2018, Wikipedia articles needing page number citations from December 2017, Articles containing potentially dated statements from November 2020, All articles containing potentially dated statements, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, House of Retreat for the Clergy of Saints John and Paul, This page was last edited on 21 December 2020, at 08:21. Albert, S.I. six 1987. The Consistory will take place on Oct. 5. [36][c] In February 1965, Pope Paul VI decided that an Eastern Rite Patriarch who is created a cardinal would no longer be assigned a titular church in Rome, but maintain his see and join the order of cardinal bishops, the rank previously reserved to the six cardinals assigned to the suburbicarian dioceses. History’s first Latin American pope has long sought to name cardinals from the “peripheries,” to show the universal nature of the church and … The office of cardinal as it is known today slowly evolved during the first millennium from the clergy of Rome. [23] His next consistory in 1976 brought the number of cardinal electors to its full complement of 120.[24]. the reunion of the cardinals and the pope. Graph: Distribution of Cardinal electors and non-electors. In the 12th century, the Third Lateran Council declared that only Cardinals could assume the papacy, a requirement that has since lapsed. Virtual is Not the Same as Real. When exceeding the 120 limit, John Paul II approved "temporary derogations" of the rule so that all of those under 80 could participate in a consistory as electors. in case the pope became insane, or personally a heretic; in such cases it would be necessary to consult the dictates of right reason and the teachings of history. [16], The Fifth Council of the Lateran (1512–1517), despite its lengthy regulation of the lives of cardinals, did not consider the size of the college. As the worldwide Church grew in size, the duties of the Pope, and the administrative concerns of the Roman Church (diocese) grew. Other changes to the College in the 20th century affected specific orders. In modern times the function of the college is to advise the Pope about Church issues whenever he summons them to an ordinary consistory. Required fields are marked *, (function( timeout ) { Between 1791 and 2018, only one was removed from the College–Étienne Charles de Loménie de Brienne in 1791–and five resigned: Tommaso Antici in 1798, Marino Carafa di Belevedere in 1807, Carlo Odescalchi in 1838, Louis Billot in 1927, and Theodore Edgar McCarrick in 2018. [10], In 1517 Pope Leo X added another thirty-one cardinals, bringing the total to sixty-five so that he could have a supportive majority in the College of Cardinals. [43], The resignation or removal of members has been a relatively rare phenomenon. Before the new rule there were 127 cardinals eligible to vote for a new pope, 38 of them Italian. Others run a department of the Roman Curia. As for the functions of the College of Cardinals, we have already seen much of this in the history above. These might include matters of disciplining the clergy, filling vacancies and so forth. Cardinal priests today are generally bishops of important dioceses throughout the world, though some hold offices in the Curia. [53] Of the 115 cardinals who participated in the conclave that elected Pope Francis, 48 were appointed by Pope John Paul II and 67 by Pope Benedict XVI. In the Catholic church, the Dean of the College of Cardinals and the Cardinal Vice-Dean are the president and vice-president of the college. History [1]– Originally the term “cardinal” simply referred to any priest who was attached to a particular church or diocese. They not only saw to the election but they also ran things during the interregnum. Even to this day we speak of diocesan priests as being “incardinated” (or attached) to a certain diocese or religious order, and this is required for every priest. [2], As of 28 November 2020,[update] the college has 229 members, 128 of whom are eligible to participate in a conclave. The College is responsible for selecting the next pope whenever the incumbent dies or decides to abdicate. Those who were assigned to the latter roles were given the titles of Legatus a latere (Cardinal Legate) and Missus Specialis (Special Missions). [15] The capitulation of the papal conclave, 1492 also is known to have contained some restriction on the creation of new cardinals. Changes in life expectancy partly account for the increases in the size of the college. May our Cardinals experience many graces and blessings in their work of electing a new Pope, likely from among their own number. It … Angelo Sodano, Cardinal, Dean Emeritus . The Secretary of State, the prefects of the dicasteries of the Roman Curia, the Camerlengo of the Holy Roman Church, the Vicar General of Rome, and the Patriarchs of Venice and Lisbon, are usually cardinals, with few, usually temporary, exceptions. [3], The word cardinal is derived from the Latin cardo, meaning "hinge". This was significant as the aims and views of the Holy Roman Emperor and the Church did not always coincide. Pages may have considerable notes/highlighting. Roman. Now that attention shifts on Saturday to the new Cardinals, (Including Archbishop Wilton Gregory of this Archdiocese), it might be good to spend a brief time reflecting on what a Cardinal is and how the College of Cardinals functions. setTimeout( The number of these cardinal deacons gradually rose over the years. The Modern Scene – More could be said of the history but allow this to bring us to modern times [2]. [11][12][13] The capitulations of the 1484 (Pope Innocent VIII)[14] and 1513 (Pope Leo X) conclaves contained the same restriction. In these meetings were regularly treated doctrinal questions of faith, disciplinary matters, canonizations, approvals of rules of new orders, indulgences for the Universal Church, rules for papal elections, the calling of general councils, appointing of Apostolic legates and vicars etc. The College of Cardinals. College of Cardinals - Members from the United States. There are some echoes of all this in every diocese through a mechanisms known as the College of Deans and College of Consultors who assist the Bishop in administrative details and matters of Church discipline. Except for presiding and delegating administrative tasks, they have no authority over the cardinals, acting as primus inter pares (first among equals). Most cardinals have additional duties, such as leading a diocese or archdiocese. [2], Since the emergence of the College of Cardinals in the Early Middle Ages, the size of the body has historically been limited by popes, ecumenical councils, and even the College itself. Your email address will not be published. There are not to be “free-ranging” priests. List of Cardinals in order of Age. [28][b] Three of Pope Benedict XVI's five consistories resulted in more than 120 cardinal electors, the high being 125 in 2012. History [1]- Originally the term “cardinal” simply referred … 1. It also convenes on the death or abdication of a pope as a papal conclave to elect a successor. Watch! Your email address will not be published. Given their elevated status over a deacon who only served a parish, they came to be called cardinal deacons. [7] Although Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor sought a limit of 26 and complained about the size and quality of the college to his legates to the Council of Trent, and some French attendees advocated a limit of 24, that Council did not prescribe a limit to the size of the college. By the 11th Century the College of Cardinals took on more importance as they began to oversee the election of a new pope when this became necessary. "[4], In 845 the Council of Meaux "required Bishops to establish Cardinal titles or parishes in their towns and outlining districts". No canonical provisions exist regulating the authority of the College of Cardinals sede Romanâ impeditâ, i.e. The word cardinal is derived from the Latin cardo, meaning "hinge". They performed numerous duties but chief among them was record-keeping and the coordination of the care of the poor, cemeteries and the like. Pope John Paul II reiterated the 120 maximum in 1996,[25][26] yet his appointments to the College resulted in more than 120 cardinal electors on 4 of his nine consistories, reaching a high of 135 in February 2001[27] and again in October 2003. The two who did not participate were Julius Riyadi Darmaatmadja (for health reasons) and Keith O'Brien (following allegations of sexual misconduct). Perhaps it is good to start with a little history and then describe the present realities. Europe as a whole also lost cardinal electors, from 52.1 percent of the college at the conclave to 45.6 percent today, the lowest percentage ever. .hide-if-no-js { This was part of a larger power struggle, which became known as the Investiture Controversy, as the Church and the Emperor each attempted to gain more control over the appointment of bishops, and in doing so wield more influence in the lands and governments they were appointed to. A charter member of the National Football League, the Cardinals trace their history back to 1898 when Chris O'Brien formed the Morgan Athletic Club. [7], The conclave capitulation of the papal conclave, 1352 limited the size of the college to twenty, and decreed that no new cardinals could be created until the size of the college had dropped to 16; however, Pope Innocent VI declared the capitulation invalid the following year.[8][9]. [6], The College played an integral part in various reforms within the Church as well, as early as the pontificate of Pope Leo IX (1050). The first class to form was that of the cardinal-deacons, direct theological descendants of the original seven ordained in Acts 6, followed by the cardinal-priests, and finally, the cardinal-bishops. Electors. college of cardinals • Body of all cardiuansl • Advise pope on church matters when pope calls upon them. The Papal Princes: A History of the Sacred College of Cardinals Hardcover – January 1, 1960 by Glenn D. 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